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NSHOF Sailing STEM Program - The Science of Sailing PDF Print

"The Science of Sailing" - Curriculum



Learning objectives

Students will:

  • Gain an understanding of physics and mathematics concepts in the Science of Sailing
  • Apply these concepts to designing a sailboat


Timing: Eight 90-minute sessions (can alternatively be presented in 16 45-minute or 24 30-minute segments)

Lesson 1: Vocabulary and Introduction to Sailboats

What is a Sailboat?


Provide an introduction to the course and explore the components that make up a sailboat. Explore how sailboats function, as well as the physics and mathematics that will be learned in the class.

Parts of the Boat


Provide  an overview of terminology so the course can progress at the desired pace. Describe the parts of the boat using pictures of the typical local sailboat and a ditto, flash cards, or worksheet to spread the language of sailing to non-sailors.

Parts of the Sail


Familiarize students with the various components of sails used. While teaching the vocabulary, explain what each part does and how it works, while encouraging students to figure out the why it works on their own.

Lesson 2: History of Sailboats and Boat Design

History of Progression of Sailboats

  Sailboats have a long history which provides important insights into why boats have become what they are today. A detailed history of sailboats expands students’ horizons and allows them to be able to integrate an older design into a newer design. You can also engage a wide variety of students with good historical stories of certain types of vessels.

Historical Designs

  Provide a list and set of historical designs for students to reference while designing their own vessel. Give the students perspective for designing their boat with an explanation of certain designs, why they were built and for what regions.

Modern Designs

  Provide a list and set of modern designs as well so students can work on improving their design. Again, a list will provide a reference while an explanation of the designs and why they were built for what regions will help students think more thoroughly about their design.

Lesson 3: How a Sailboat Works - Part 1


  Provide an explanation of different hull types and why designs differ. Introduce students to the different types of hulls they could potentially use. Describe why certain hull shapes are preferable to others Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different hull types.


  Describe different sail configurations and explain the reasons why some boats have different sail plans. Discuss how sail design has progressed through the ages, and why most boats today have a sloop rig. However, different sail designs and sail plans have different advantages and disadvantages. Expose students  to different types of rigging -- explaining why different rigs are used in different situations may inspire a student to build a more unique boat.

Fluid Dynamics

  Provide an introduction to fluid dynamics and theories that will be applied to the boat: lift, drag, Newton's three laws, vector addition, Bernoulli's Principle, and the Coanda effect.

Lesson 4: How a Sailboat Works - Part 2


  Since boats are designed to be on the water, they need to float. A buoyancy lesson will weed out poorly thought-out designs and help redirect students to a realistic approach.


  Displacement is key in how a boat moves through the water. Without displacing water a boat would sink, so It is important to touch on this subject and have students figure out hull speed. This is also a great time to introduce planing. It is also a great tie-in with buoyancy because the boat must displace the water equal to its density in order to float. Since displacement can be viewed in so many different ways, it is a good idea to have students work on what other ways displacement could affect the boat.

Forces on the Boat

  Provide a physics lesson on all the forces that have been discussed up to this point as well as any others that may affect the way the sailboat works. Focus on the sails, the keel, the hull and the forces they enact, counteract, and react to.

Lesson 5: Stability

Center of Gravity

  Center of gravity is linked to buoyancy and displacement. Expand the lesson into discussing righting moment, heeling moment and capsizing moment. Initial stability vs. ultimate stability are important topics to discuss.

Center of Buoyancy

  Center of buoyancy determines where and when the lever arm created by the keel and the boat will try to right the boat, and how it naturally wants to sit in the water. From this, you can also calculate torque and how much effort is needed to right each particular boat.

Initial Stability vs. Ultimate Stability

  When combining the center of gravity and center of buoyancy lessons, you will ultimately discuss initial stability and ultimate stability. The two are very important to talk about because of the age-old argument of multihulls vs. monohulls. This will demonstrate the differences between a boat which takes a lot of effort to heel and a boat that constantly heels but takes a lot of effort to flip or roll.

Lesson 6: Rough Draft and Peer Revisions

Checking Designs

  Assign students to small groups (usually four or less) and instruct them to put the knowledge they have learned thus far into action by critiquing their classmates’ designs. This group activity will stimulate student-directed reflection on what they have learned thus far and improve all of the students' designs.

Peer Workshop

  Have students incorporate their classmates' feedback and additional  instructor input to brainstorm about how they can make their design better. After their design has been checked, students can offer alternative ideas to other classmates. This can be done while still working in groups, or the exercise can be used to bring the class back together as a whole. Having students show the changes to their design will demonstrate new design ideas and how all of the students can change and tweak their own design to make it more efficient.

Time to Work on Revisions

  Students will be excited about what their classmates have told them and they will want to apply those ideas right away. Give them sufficient time to do this or the improvements may never be made.

Lesson 7: Boat Design and Utility

How Location can Affect Sailing Situations


Different boats are made for different regions of the world. Remind students of this and allow them to think about where they would want to sail their boat. This may impact their final design.

Catamaran cruisers are preferred in the Caribbean due to the space they provide and because they don't need to dock. The low topsides allow for easy diving off of the back, and easy dinghy access to and from the boat and dock. On the Chesapeake Bay, Marconi sloops with a shoal draft keel are preferred due to the great speed they can attain in all types of winds and with the shallow depth of the bay. Sailing across oceans also dictates a different set of preferences for boat design.

Activities Allowed

  Certain boats have restrictions on what can be done on them. For example, a pure race boat is not very comfortable and therefore would not be great for a family vacation, while a pure cruising boat is not going to be very fast on a race course. Ask what activities the students plan on doing with their boat, and whether their design best supports these activities to take place? They may need to modify their design based on how they want to sail their boat.

Construction Materials

  What materials will be chosen to build their design? Different materials have different properties and different costs. Encourage students to think about a market broader than themselves, leading them to possibly further alter their designs and/or materials based on what they would want to spend and their target audience. For example, carbon fiber is an amazingly light and strong material, however it doesn't flex well — as the Volvo Ocean racers found out this past year. Fiberglass can be more flexible, however it is not as strong and not as light as carbon fiber. Wood is a classic material that brings a certain majestic look to boats, and is very flexible, fairly strong, and decently light, but requires a lot of maintenance, even when the boat is not in use.

Lesson 8: Final Paper and Presentations

Final Exam

  The amount of math and science learned in this class allows for a final test to be given. This is an excellent way to measure the effectiveness of your teaching and of student participation in the class. It should include questions about density, volume, buoyancy, torque, Newton's Laws, Bernoulli's Principle, Coanda effect, basic algebra, and arithmetic. This test will vary based on what your class has learned and covered throughout the course.



A final paper should be submitted to demonstrate that this class is teaching cross-curricular skills such as writing and research. A basic paper should describe why the students came up with their particular design, what inspired them to build this particular boat, and why they think their boat would be a good boat to sail for their chosen purpose.

Boat Design Presentation

  Students should give a final presentation to improve their public speaking abilities. This should be based on a variety of questions including those from the paper, however it is suggested that multiple questions be asked so that the student audience does not get bored while hearing similar presentations back-to-back.
NSHOF Sailing STEM Program - Navigation Overview PDF Print

"Navigation" - Curriculum



Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Gain a better understanding of real world use of geometry and algebra.
  • Apply skills to indoor and outdoor exercises that are interactive and engaging

Timing: Each of these lessons are a 90 minute lesson plan. They can be broken down fairly easily into two 45-minute plans.

MOI = Method of Instruction (Research, Lecture, Workshop, etc.)

Lesson 1: Reading a Topographic Map and Nautical Chart

Deciphering a
Topographic Map


Using a local map and a non-local map show different regions and explain how topographic maps work. The same can be done with charts.

MOI: Presentation requiring student interaction.

Deciphering a Chart


Using a Chart you may do the same thing as with the Local Map and Non-Local Map.

MOI: Presentation requiring student interaction.

Learning the Key


The Key is a very important part of any map. However on most topographic maps you will find it lacking. Explain standard symbols using page 1 of a Chart book or Map pack.

MOI: Student Analysis, Student Discovery.

Contour Lines, Interval, and
Depth Soundings


Contour Lines are a great way to explain 3D and 2D and charting. Contour lines can’t touch so the rings represent a set elevation interval representing a 3D surface in 2D. It is important to explain contour lines and their interval so students can more accurately read a map.

MOI: Presentation requiring student interaction, Map/Chart Work.

Local Map/Chart
Finding Reference Points


Using the local map show how it highlights certain reference points so that students who live in the area will be able to see the next time they step outside.

MOI: Presentation, Student Analysis, Map/Chart Work.

The Three Norths


The Three Norths Explains how you make a Sphere into a Rectangle and why compasses don’t point North.

MOI: Map/Chart Work, Presentation.



Declination is a great way to challenge the modern mind with basic arithmetic.  Explain how it is important to work off of true north and that adding or subtracting the declination of the area is important so as not to compound errors.  Change maps often to allows for students to get into a routine of checking declination.

MOI: Presentation requiring student interaction, Map/Chart Work.

Lesson 2: Using a Compass

Compass Vocabulary


Compass Vocabulary is very important so that students can follow exact instructions.  It is also a great way to talk about other vocabulary involved in sailing, boating, and navigation in general.

MOI: Presentation, Quiz, Worksheet

Compass History


The history of navigation, the compass, and other navigation tools as well as the discovery of Longitude will show how we've come to this modern era of navigation, but also why it can be important not to forget the "old fashioned" way of doing things.

MOI: Presentation.

How a Compass Works


How a compass works will explain where a compass points. How the Earths Magnetic Poles work and why we can use a compass to orient ourselves on a map.

MOI: Presentation, Compass Work.

Bearing vs. Azimuth


This is comparing and contrasting two differing ways of reading a compass and giving headings. 360 degrees (Azimuth) vs. 45 degree intervals (Bearing). Allows you to create and additional challenge for the students.

MOI: Compass Work, Map/Chart Work.

How to Take a


This lesson on how to orient the compass and how to take a heading is important, without this knowledge students cannot complete the course properly.

MOI: Compass Work.

Lesson 3: Triangulation

Points We Can Use
to Triangulate


Students should Identify what points on the map they could use to triangulate their position. 

MOI: Map/Chart Work, Presentation.

Visual Triangulation


This exercise allows students to estimate. This skill is very essential for much of navigation. Getting the students to understand how useful estimation can be is important for future lessons. Have students identify three points that they could easily and readily see visually. From there have them estimate where they would probably be on the map based on what they can see. No bearings or headings should be taken for this exercise.

MOI: Student Analysis, Student Discovery.

Bearing Triangulation


This exercise is to improve on visual bearings. It is to show how precision matters in certain navigating situations. This exercise is done with a compass and three points to have students check their estimated position and to verify it or correct it from their visual triangulation.

MOI: Compass Work, Map/Chart Work, Student Analysis, Student Discovery.

Reverse Triangulation


Reverse Triangulation is simply starting from a known point and taking headings on three points. This is a good in classroom exercise or rainy day exercise. For students who can't go outside and truly navigate they can get the idea of where they are and where points are that they could use.

MOI: Student Analysis, Student Discovery, Map/Chart Work, Compass Work.

Lesson 4: Plotting a Course / Route

How to Set a Course / Route


Demonstrate or explain an Orienteering competition. This is to set expectations for the students. This exercise also explains how to combine points to create a route or course.

MOI: Presentation, Map/Chart Work, Compass Work.

Heading Off


When an object is in the way students will need to learn to head off to keep a proper course. If they don't head off they will add error to their courses.

MOI: Student Discovery, Student Analysis, Compass Work.

Thinking Ahead &
Leaving a Trace


Students need to think ahead when planning a course. This lesson helps them start to translate what they have been learning in the class into mathematics. If they think geometrically they can make their courses much more complicated while keeping directions simple. They must also learn their audience. In addition they must figure out a proper way to back track their course without getting turned around.

MOI: Student Discovery, Student Analysis, Compass Work, Map/Chart Work.

Setting a Course


Finally, students will set a course of their choice. This can be checked by peers, by the teacher or by a combination of both.

MOI: Student Discovery.

Lesson 5: Deciphering a Course / Route

How to Navigate a Course


Explains to students that have now created the course, how to properly navigate to more than one point.

MOI: Presentation, Student Analysis, Map Work/Chart Work, Student Discovery.

Common Navigation Errors


A brief lesson on some of the common mistakes that take place during navigation and why they occur. Also a good time to interject historical stories of mistakes that were made during navigation.

MOI: Student Discovery.

Dead Reckoning


Dead Reckoning is a great way to interject some basic algebra. Explain how based off of Time distance and speed you can find where you are even without reference points.

MOI: Presentation, Compass Work, Map/Chart Work, Problem Sheet.

Set and Drift


If there is time you can then work from Dead reckoning into set and drift. Where on land you don't have these things on the water you need to worry about current and crosswinds. This  combines Algebra and geometry.

MOI: Presentation, Compass Work, Map/Chart Work, Problem Sheet.

Lesson 6: Using a GPS

How a GPS Works


Most students are reliant on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to figure out where they are. It is time to embrace that this has made navigation significantly easier. It is also important to realize that it is not as reliable and requires constant upkeep compared to other methods of navigation. It is also important for students to understand how now they are navigating on three dimensional planes and not on 2 dimensional planes such as on charts or maps. Explaining how a GPS works is a great way to add a technology component to this course as well as an Engineering component.

MOI: Presentation requiring student interaction.

Finding You


Without a you are here sign most students will find themselves lost on a true GPS reader.  A chartplotter or car navigation explains where you are but it is not always that easy. The instructor should help students figure out where they are and how to compare their Latitude and Longitude with their charts.

MOI: Presentation requiring student interaction, Student Discovery, Student Analysis.

Inputting a Point


Explain how to input a point or waypoint into the GPS. Each GPS reader is different and therfore this can vary greatly. Becoming familiar with multiple systems will make it easier to teach this section. Allow students to attempt to find where they are in comparison to other points.

MOI: Student Discovery, Student Analysis, Presentation.

Setting a Route


Once students have plotted individual points of interest or waypoints it will be important for them to figure out how to navigate from point to point to create a route.

MOI: Student Discovery, Presentation requiring student interaction.

Navigating a Course


Once students have set a route they must figure out how to actual navigate that route using both GPS and compass.

MOI: Student Discovery.


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